1 edition of Cost efficient expansion of district heat networks in Germany found in the catalog.
Cost efficient expansion of district heat networks in Germany
Includes bibliographical references (p. 150-154).
|Series||Schriften des Energiewirtschaftlichen Instituts -- Bd. 64, Schriften des Energiewirtschaftlichen Instituts -- Bd. 64.|
|LC Classifications||HD4501.H42 G43 2009|
|The Physical Object|
|Pagination||xv, 164 p. :|
|Number of Pages||164|
|LC Control Number||2009494455|
Using district heating for additional purposes enables increased utilisation of energy resources that otherwise may be wasted. The key advantages of heat networks are that they can benefit from economies of scale and take advantages of local waste heat opportunities. Other factors, such as time of availability, heat demand, infrastructure, technology and costs, play decisive roles in determining if the surplus heat can be utilised or not. The fuel use for district-heating production in Sweden has switched from almost only using oil in the s to a present mixture with many heat sources.
In some places, solar energy may contribute to district-heating supply. With recent fragmenting of governments in Scandinavian metropolitan areas, however, some of these systems have broken down. It also points out that Denmark is a leader in the technology, having opened numerous such systems in the s. The largest system is in the capital Sofiawhere there are four power plants two CHPs and two boiler stations providing heat to the majority of the city.
Underfloor Heating district heating networksefficiencyrenewable heating A district heating network is a localized way of heating a number of buildings at once, using a series of steam or water-carrying pumps. This arrangement can be favourable because if many actors are involved, a series of agreements are required, which increase business risks, which in turn makes financing more expensive, which may make investments unprofitable [ 17 ]. Using biomass just for heating purposes could be a step toward sustainable development particularly in areas where non-renewable sources are used now. Climate cannot be measured solely in degree-days; load duration must also be considered. In West Germany, for example, some state constitutions provide for a municipal urbanization zone in cities that grants property owners development rights. Sweden and Denmark made almost universal use of hot water distribution systems, which also made conversion to district heating relatively easy.
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Government can provide information and incentives to help encourage building users to operate buildings efficiently and choose low-consumption behaviors. Also it is less attractive in areas of many small buildings; e. Heat recovered from waste incineration accounted for However, district heating was promoted by a combination of factors, including the growth of planning, into which district heating development could be incorporated, the predominance of successful utility ownership that recognized the advantages of combined heat and power generation, the premium price paid for imported oil, coal, and steam, and no source of natural gas.
On the other hand, it could be more difficult to argue against using electricity if the power is generated through hydropower with low production cost and without emissions. The planning considers waste heat from existing and new power plants, industries, and municipal waste incineration plants, as well as natural gas and renewable energy resources such as surplus straw, waste wood, wind, sun, and wet biomass.
This section contains content that is written like an advertisement.
Outlook Companies and organisations in well-developed district-heating countries have much knowledge that can facilitate district-heating development elsewhere. Geothermal borehole outside the Reykjavik Power Station. Moreover, energy demand for equipment use consumes a Cost efficient expansion of district heat networks in Germany book share of building energy use in the U.
District heating also gives opportunity for cogeneration of power and heat with high efficiency. There are also examples where the competition has spawned parallel networks and interconnected networks where multiple utilities cooperate.
The use of electric boilers for district-heating production increased when nuclear power expanded during the Cost efficient expansion of district heat networks in Germany book but decreased when the electricity was taxed in the s.
Availability of surplus heat during summer when the heat demand is low opens an opportunity to produce district-heating-driven cooling for buildings during summertime Sect. Similarly, residential cooperatives have provided a base for district heating in Denmark. Global energy supply is dominated by fossil fuels, such as coal, oil and natural gas, and this situation is likely to remain for many years even if the use of renewable energy sources e.
MODEST has been applied to more than 50 district-heating systems, some regional energy systems and a few national power systems. Oil and coal use decreased during the s Fig. Prior toa typical Danish apartment used about 85 million Btu annually for heat and hot water, with oil as the fuel.
In an underground storage the winter cold is heat exchanged from the air and loaded into the bedrock or an aquifer by one or more bore holes.This makes the profitability of district heating and cooling systems vulnerable to the cost of capital.
Second, the relative attractiveness of new district heating depends on both the costs of competing energy sources and on the operating costs of the system itself. District heating and cooling networks provide an ideal fit in the heart of a green city or district.
In dense urban environments where heat demand is inevitably highest, they are the ideal means of exploiting locally available streams of renewable energy and surplus heat.
May 31, · Figures released this month show the cost of district heating falling to its lowest-ever level in Denmark. Low spot market prices, which may have been in part a result of renewable generation.Modernization pdf the District Heating Systems in Ukraine: Heat Metering and Consumption-Based Billing February, Sustainable Development Department Europe and Central Asia Region Document of the World Bank.
Installing heat-cost allocators ( percent savings).The district heating market download pdf France comprises nearly different heating and cooling networks which provide an annual output of about 19, MWth. The heating and air conditioning networks serve 3 million French citizens, or 6% of the residential and commercial real estate.
This sector represents a total turnover of billion Euros and employs over.MODERNIZATION OF THE DISTRICT HEATING SYSTEMS IN Ebook Heat Metering and Consumption-Based Billing iii Acronyms and Abbreviations CHP Combined Heat and Power Plant CTP Group Heat Substation IFI International Financial Institution ITP Individual Heat Substation DH District Heating HCA Heat-Cost Allocator HOA Homeowners’ Association HOB Heat.